Countries Such As Germany And Japan Integrate RFID Technology Into Solid Waste Treatment, And Waste Recycling Rate

- Oct 16, 2019-

After more than 30 years of research and practice in the developed countries and regions such as the United States, the European Union, and Japan, a fine control system for the whole process of solid waste has been established.


Since the 1980s, in order to alleviate the shortage of raw materials, China began to import solid waste that can be used as raw materials from abroad, thus gradually becoming the world's largest import and use of solid waste. According to the 2017 customs statistics, the largest types of solid waste imported by China in the past year were waste paper, waste plastics, and scrap metal.


In order to further standardize the import management of solid waste and prevent environmental pollution caused by the renewable resources industry, in 2017, the General Office of the State Council issued the “Implementation Plan for the Reform of the Import Management System for the Prohibition of Foreign Waste Entry into the Solid Waste”, which was adjusted in batches in 2018. According to the "Import Waste Management Directory", by the end of 2019, the new "banned import of solid waste" will reach 32 varieties.


Under the background of the “foreign garbage ban”, with the deepening of various tasks such as waste sorting management, “urban minerals” demonstration base and “no waste city” construction, the recycling and utilization of solid waste in China will continue. The space for utilization of solid waste recycling is still huge.


After more than 30 years of research and practice in the developed countries and regions such as the United States, the European Union, and Japan, a fine control system for the whole process of solid waste has been established.


Solid waste treatment new technology


The United States, the European Union, Japan and other developed countries and regions have formed a large-scale solid waste recycling industry, and major countries have also supported the development of technology research and development.


For example, the European Union Horizon 2020 has set up special projects in the field of solid waste, and has supported a number of research projects in the fields of recycling of used materials and urban minerals. Japan continues to promote the development of “circular society”. Nearly 100% of the metal is recycled, and the solid waste landfill rate is reduced to 3% in 2035.


In general, new technologies such as environmental big data, the Internet, and artificial intelligence are integrated into the field of solid waste resource utilization. The United States, Canada and other developed solids-based waste recycling and industrial symbiosis decision-making algorithms and platforms based on the Internet/Internet technology, which increased the waste recovery rate by 37%. Germany, Japan and other radio frequency identification (RFID) have been applied in the fields of garbage removal, metering systems, waste statistics, monitoring and management.


For example, Apple Inc. of the United States has developed Liam and Daisy, a mobile phone recycling and disassembling intelligent robot, which can dismantle a mobile phone in a dozen seconds. The robot developed by Matsushita Environmental Protection Co., Ltd. can be intelligently transported, video recognized, accurately positioned, and quickly disassembled. Intelligent equipment, to achieve efficient dismantling of used household appliances and fine separation of resin metal, copper purity up to 99%.


In addition, the United States and the European Union have also established solid waste risk assessment models and basic databases such as IWEM, 3MRA, EPACMTP, and IWAIR, which provide support for fine waste control of solid waste. In the resource utilization technology of solid waste such as waste paper, waste plastics and scrap metal, developed countries have also developed and applied new technological processes to increase the added value of solid waste resource products.


Waste paper resource utilization


Developed countries such as Europe and the United States have established strict waste paper recycling and grading systems. For example, the United States divides waste paper into 51 grades, and clearly describes and classifies the use, performance and source of each grade of waste paper.


Traditional waste paper recycling is mainly used to produce recycled paper. The processing usually involves mechanical grinding, deinking, decolorization, bleaching, clay removal and adhesives, but the papermaking process leads to fiber loss and loss of paper strength. The number of recycling uses is limited. At present, there are related technologies in foreign countries that convert waste paper into new materials for furniture and construction.


For example, researchers in the United States, Germany, Japan and other countries mix fiber materials, wood fibers, cement and other materials extracted from waste newspapers for the production of medium density fiberboard. The board made of waste paper has good heat insulation, sound insulation effect and low price.


Researchers in Germany use waste paper as a raw material for particleboard production, mainly as a core material for the intermediate layer or sheet. Researchers in the United States grind old newspapers into powders, and then mix and heat them with polymeric materials such as polyethylene propylene to melt the mixture and mold them into a molding machine. The fire resistance and thermal stability are superior to those of general resin materials.


The Swiss Federal Laboratories and Isofloc have jointly developed a thermal insulation material made of waste paper that can be used to make materials such as wood and wooden house fittings. The additives are harmless to humans, animals and the environment, and have fire protection. Value.


The Finnish National Technical Research Center has developed a technology that uses waste paper products and waste textiles to make waste paper, used fabrics, waste cotton, wood-based fibers, etc. into viscose-type recycled fibers. Waste paper can also be used in the production of pulp molded products, primary or secondary fibers produced from waste paper as the main raw materials, and the fibers are dehydrated by special molds, and then dried and shaped to be used for food, Packaging of products such as home appliances.


In addition to the use of waste paper to produce new materials, there are also studies abroad that use waste paper for the manufacture of chemical materials. Researchers at the National University of Singapore's School of Engineering used waste paper to produce aerogels, and in 2016, the first to convert waste paper into a green cellulose aerogel, to produce non-toxic, lightweight, flexible, high-strength and waterproof products. It can be applied to many areas such as oil spill cleaning, insulation and packaging. Japan's KataoKa Shigyo KK has developed a low-cost method for producing lactic acid from newspapers. Cellulase is used to make waste paper secondary fibers into glucose, and then lactic acid is produced by a fermentation process.


Waste plastic resource utilization


In 2018, the United Nations Environment Program focused on the issue of disposable plastic pollution for the first time; in 2019, the newly revised Basel Convention first included provisions for the management of waste plastics, adding contaminated, mixed “dirty” plastic waste to import and export restrictions. The German federal government has included reducing the environmental pollution of plastics in the key areas of High-Tech Strategy 2025.


Waste plastics resource utilization technology is mainly divided into two categories: identification and sorting technology and processing and utilization technology.


Waste plastics produced by daily consumption, such as various packaging bags, beverage bottles, films, etc., need to be sorted and removed before they can be recycled. Therefore, the identification and sorting technology of plastics is very important, such as hydraulic cyclone separation. , air flotation sorting, etc.


In Europe and the United States, electrostatic separation technology is applied to the separation of only binary mixed plastics, such as ABS/PC (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer/polycarbonate), PET/PVC (poly-p-benzene) Waste plastics such as ethylene glycol diester/polyvinyl chloride) and PP/PE (polypropylene/polyethylene), which collide with each other and are separated by different deviations in the electric field. There is also a report using a froth flotation method in which bubbles are adhered to the surface of a specific polymer to separate waste plastics having similar densities.


At present, developed countries have also developed a method for sorting waste plastics based on spectroscopy. For example, the AUTOSORT system of Tombra in Norway, the SORTEX series from Bühler, the VARISORT series from S+S in Germany, and the MISTRAL from PELLENC ST in France use near-infrared spectroscopy for HDPE in plastics. Density polyethylene), PVC (polyvinyl chloride), PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PE (polyethylene) and other waste plastics for fine sorting, the identification accuracy and identification size according to different companies There are certain differences in the algorithm.


The traditional waste plastics resource utilization technology is to remelt and granulate it for the production of recycled plastic materials. For different waste plastic materials, plasma gasification, composite volume expansion, high temperature pyrolysis, fluid catalytic cracking and other technologies have been applied.


Austria Erema Recycling Engineering Machinery Co., Ltd. adopts reverse countercurrent technology, that is, waste plastic and extrusion screw machine rotate in the opposite direction to improve the recovery performance of waste plastics, reduce the temperature in the production process, and improve the processing capacity and output of recycled plastics. The technology won the "European Invention Award" from the European Patent Office (EPO) in 2019.


Two new plastic recycling equipment from the Austrian Starlinger company, reco STAR PET 330 and reco STAR165, can be used for the recycling of cleaning waste, lightweight film and abrasive-resistant plastic products.


Dutch designers have developed the second generation of manual DIY plastic recycling equipment Precious Plastic. The equipment consists of a plastic pulverizer, an extruder, an injection molding machine and a rotary molding machine, which can make waste plastic into a new product.


Japan Sekisui Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. developed a "sandwich" filling technology to utilize waste plastics, use waste plastics as production logistics freight boxes, and use high-strength and plastic-plastic plastics as surface materials to reduce household consumption. Strength waste plastic is used for the intermediate filling material.


The energy conversion technology of waste plastics is also a research hotspot in developed countries. For example, plastic cracking technology, in the absence of oxygen or anoxic environment, through the high temperature heating, the carbon chain and hydrocarbon chain in the plastic molecules are cracked into small molecular hydrocarbons, the obtained products can be divided into pyrolysis gas and pyrolysis oil .


Japan has developed a technology to catalyze the pyrolysis and oilification of waste plastics (Kurata method), which makes the yield of alkane in polystyrene plastic pyrolysis oil more than 80%.


American scientists have developed a new technology that converts plastic shopping bags into diesel, natural gas and other petroleum products. The plastic bag is originally a kind of petrochemical product. The distillation of waste plastics can obtain nearly 80% of the fuel, which is higher than the yield of 50%~55% of the crude oil distillation process.


The waste plastics energy conversion plant built by the British company Cynar in Ireland has a daily capacity of 10 tons of waste plastics and a conversion rate of 95%. Waste plastics from Zug, Switzerland, are transported to Plast Oil for the production of fuel oil.


The University of New South Wales in Australia has developed a polymer injection technology (PIT) that uses waste plastics for steel production, which can reduce total carbon injection in steelmaking by 10% to 20% and carbon injection costs by 15%. ~35%, this technology can also greatly reduce the environmental pollution caused by waste rubber and waste plastics.


Scrap metal resource utilization


At present, the main resource utilization method of scrap metal is still used as recycled materials after re-smelting, and the sorting technology of scrap metal is also the key.


The sorting of scrap metal materials in developed countries in Europe and America has evolved from simple sensor technology to image processing, neural network and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The automatic sorting system can be flexibly selected according to sorting tasks and conditions. The ground is configured to sort out the scrap metal particles with a particle size of 1 to 2 mm, and the sorting accuracy is as high as 95% or more.


For example, Finnish researchers have proposed a scrap metal sorting system that combines dual-energy X-ray, machine vision and inductive sensors to achieve better sorting results under laboratory conditions.


The recycling of scrap metal in e-waste has also received increasing attention.


For example, Belgium's UCIORE Group sent copper, lead and nickel in electronic waste to copper smelting facilities to produce crude lead, nickel arsenic slag and copper slag. Nickel arsenic slag contains platinum group metals and precious metals The form of the alloy is recycled.


Japan Tonghe Mining Co., Ltd. treats the gold-containing waste chips and connectors in electronic waste by a wet method, and the solution can be refined to obtain precious metals. Metal materials such as electronic substrates and copper wires are generally burned by rotary kiln or treated by pyrolysis, and finally sent to copper smelters for resource utilization.


Germany, Belgium, Sweden and other countries have carried out systematic research on the synergistic utilization of multi-source metal molten pool smelting, and made breakthroughs in homogenization regulation, multi-phase reaction and directed separation mechanism, and high mineral element mild mineralization. Complete technical system and complete equipment